The sub-collection Archaeology, for the most part, documents the development of the settlement in the Kutná Hora district.

Its oldest part originated at the end of the 19th century during the activities of Vocel Archaeological Society. Since the 1950s, the collection has been systematically enlarged through acquisition and research carried out by the museum workers.

The sub-collection comprises objects documenting the settlement in the Kutná Hora district from Paleolithic Age to Renaissance and includes stone tool industry, ceramics, osteological material, glass, metals, and infrequently objects made of leather and wood. Some athropological material is also included. The sub-collection is divided according to signatures into Prehistoric (P) and Medieval sections (K2 and K). The Medieval glass objects are labelled with the signature R1 and tiles with the signature K1.